Black, red and white Chinese vinegars are all made from rice, and as flavor differs, be sure to use the type specified. Red vinegar has a distinctive tang. Black Chinese Vinegar is made from rice, wheat and millet or sorghum. The best black vinegars are well-aged and have a complex, smoky flavor similar to balsamic, wich may be substituted. Chinese cooks add black vinegar sparingly to sauces, dips and when braising meats. Balsamic vinegar is a good substitute. Japanese rice vinegar is fermented from rice and is less acidic than malt or wine vinegars. It has a mild and pleasant fragrance. Slightly diluted cider vinegar or a good quality Chinese rice vinegar, slightly diluted, can be used as subtitutes. White vinegar is made from glutinous rice and has a mild, sweet flavor. It is colorless and is one of the definitive ingredients used in sweet and sour auce. Subtitute Japanese rice vinegar or white wine vinegar.